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1. Inclusion in general education
The first official researches have started in 1981 and it has changed the way of thinking about people with disabilities in Hungary . The center of these researches is the Gusztav Barczy Special Education College. There were many obstacles and difficulties in front of the researchers but they did their best to reach a better society, where everybody has the same right for education, vocational training, employment and social life. In 1998 the Ministry created another law (1998. évi XXVI. Törvény, 1998) that ensured personal and equal rights for people with disabilities. One part of the rights is education. According to the educational policy their right is to be part of early education, kindergarten, elementary school education or rehabilitation depending on their status and age. It also stated that the child - if his parents are in favour of that - can enter the public kindergartens and schools, and be integrated into its settings. It's always the parents who take the last decision on the basis of the evaluation committee's study. We have to emphasize though that the integration is a possibility, it is an alternative way of education, and not compulsory.

According to the researchers' hard working, a new Public Education Policy was launched in 1993 (1993. évi LXXIX. törvény a közoktatásról, 1993). This was the legal framework for the students with disabilities to enter the public schools without any discrimination. The parents have the right to decide where their child will continue the studies. There are 2 educational systems - inclusive or segregated - to choose from. Parents can decide which educational form would be the most suitable for the child. In the year 2002/2003 there was more than 64.000 children with disabilities in education. From that 18.000 (28,3%) were in integrated setting (Statistics, 2002/2003. academic year: kindergarten - high school). In the segregated system each type of disabilities has its special school, where the child can study if the parents think this is the best for their child.

For the society integration and inclusion were as an innovation in education and the changes are always difficult to be accepted. By now - 2006- the question is not anymore whether inclusion is possible but how to do it.

2. Inclusion in Physical Education
P.E. is compulsory in every school. According to the curriculum there are 10 cultural domains, where the 10 th is P.E. and Sport. In inclusive settings the children will follow the regular P.E. classes where there peers are participating. The P.E. teachers are not ready yet for accepting students with disabilities in their class. They don't know what to do. In the past 2 years the Ministry of Education has been trying to organize teachers' training education programs to give them more knowledge on this topic. Hungary joined the Twinning Program where academic personnel from P.E. teacher training institutions participated, they visited Denmark where they had the possibility to observe and study the inclusive setting and the P.E. teachers' work. At the end of the program all the colleges and universities where there is P.E. teachers' training has started a new course with inclusive setting from the academic year 2005/2006. From now on there will be no P.E. teacher who hasn't met the inclusive setting during its studies. Inclusion in school sports is very rare. Of course these activities are open for people with disabilities but it doesn't work. Reasons: lack of promotion, knowledge, interest.

The law doesn't mention any kind of support either for teachers or children. The teachers' can participate training programs to get to know more about the topic if they want to which is supported by the Ministry of Education, but if the teacher is not interested in the education of students with disabilities he/she will select other topics what she can use during the lessons. These kind of educational programs are compulsory for teachers every 4 years. Of course, if they are interested they can go any time to have more knowledge. Another specialty in the schools is if there is person with disability there must be special education teacher employed by the school to help the teachers with their work. The special education teacher's presence is compulsory and stated in the legislation. Only this way the school can receive those supportive instruments and equipments which are needed for a better education.

The students' official registration is conducted by the Professional and Rehabilitation Committee, which decide the disability type and its level. If the committee states that a child needs special help for its studies they will help the family to find the best school and possibilities. Than, the parents decide if the child will continue in an inclusive setting or in a special school. Whatever the decision will be, the child deserves all the supports that are stated in the legislations for the people with disabilities.

Inclusion in sports and physical activity

General legislation with regards to disability sport

The law says that we have to make it possible for people with disabilities to enter cultural-, sport and other social events. For sport activities the buildings and institutions must be reachable for wheelchair users and other people with disabilities. It is also stated that leisure sport activities of people with disabilities are supported by Wesselényi Miklós Nemzeti Ifjúsági és Szabadidősport Közalapítvány (Wesselenyi Miklos National Youth and Leisure Sport Foundation) and their elite sport and competitive performance are supported by Gerevich Aladár Nemzeti Sport Közalapítvány (Gerevich Aladar National Sport Foundation).

Sport organizations

The Hungarian Paralimpic Committee is the biggest sport organization for people with disabilities. It works as an ‘umbrella' committee. Under its provision there 6 special sport organizations:

  • Hungarian Sport Federation of mentally disabled
  • Hungarian Sport Federation of physically disabled
  • Hungarian Sport Federation of deaf
  • Hungarian Special Olympic Federation
  • Hungarian Sport Federation of blinds and visually impaired
  • Hungarian Cultural, Sport and Personal Rights Federation for transplanted

The general sport organizations and disability sport organizations work separately but if it's needed they help each other, can work together for better results.


Wesselenyi Miklos National Youth and Leisure Sport Foundation gives regular and automatic support to the above mentioned sport organizations but not to the Hungarian Special Olympic Federation. Its support is occasionally. The Foundation has yearly budget and it covers 2 areas:

  • Operational support (infrastructure, salary...etc)
  • Event support (competitions, activities...etc)

The Hungarian P.E. and Sport Institution gives regular support to the sport organizations. It also works with a yearly budget. The Committee for Personal Rights gives support on infrastructure or money according to the needs and request.

Employment of youngsters with a disability

The person with disability has the right for integrative employment, if there is no chance for that the person has the right for protected employment. The employer is requested to make any changes in the circumstances such as equipments, tools and other objects that are necessary for the person with disability. The costs are covered from the central budget support. If the person with disabilities can not work within the integrative setting, special workplace has to be created where his right to work is realized. The protected work-place is supported by the central budget with a normative amount. Additional supports are given by organizations, but in a very low rate.

By Szilvia Gita



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